Saturday, May 23, 2020
Smoking is one of the practices which is considered highly dangerous to our health because it impacts the smoker and the people around them. There are approximately one billion smokers. Smoking is a big issue that the nonsmoker faces. For example, when the smokers smoke in public places like restaurants, universities and other public places it hurts the non-smoker. The non-smoker breathing the cigarette, marijuana or hookah smoke from the smoker do both of them are breathing toxic chemicals. In a cigarette there are more than 5,000 chemicals and that is the easiest way to cause health problems. Smoking should be banned in public places because it effect the non-smokers health such as respiratory system, harm lung cancers, and the last thing is heart disease. The addicted and heavy smokers have therefore developed a mentality of carrying their cigars with them so that they can easily access them whenever their thirst for smoking surfaces. Smoking in public refers to the practice whereby a smoker responds to their substance thirst by smoking in places where there are different kinds of people including those who do not smoke. Such places include the open public like roads, streets, market and social places like restaurants, hotels and public services vehicles (Pollock, 2013). This kind of behavior has however attracted mixed opinions from those who do not smoke, health experts and the smokers. The people who are protected by the campaigns to ban smoking in public placesShow MoreRelatedShould Smoking Be Banned Public Places?941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindividuals get older they try to cope with the stresses of everyday life by continuing to smoking. It makes them feel more relaxed and at ease. Whatever the reason is, it is a hard habit to break once one starts. For many smokers today it is getting hard to find a place to smoke. Comedians joke about going to another planet just to light up. Smoking should be banned in public places because smoking is just as bad for nonsmokers as it is for smokers. The effects of secondhand smoke orRead MoreShould Smoking Be Banned Public Places?950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesday I walk in to public place with a friend right away we sat down to eat, we were having a conversation later we smell cigarette smoke in the air. I start coughing from the smell of smoke. I also notice a lot of customers who like eating dinner at a public place smoking cigarette. Smoking is a big health problem I feel it is not fair to take away cigarette for people who smoke in American who desire smoke cigarette. Even thought the same as the concession is able to be taking place on this topicRead MoreShould Smoking Be Banned Public Places?885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesday I walk into public place with a friend right away we sat down to eat, we were having a conversation later we smell cigarette smoke in the air. I start coughing from the smell of smoke. I also notice a lot of customers who like eating dinner at a public place smoking cigarette. Smoking is a big health problem I feel it is not fair to take away cigarette for people who smoke in American who desire smoke cigarette. Even thought the same as the concession is able to be taking place on this topicRead MoreSmoking in Public Places Should Be Banned Essay474 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesSmoking in Public Places Should Be Banned I feel very strongly that smoking in public places should be banned. I will list my reasons for my thinking below and explain why I think this. I cannot stand walking down a street behind someone who is smoking. Every time they exhale I then have to walk into a cloud of their smoke. My clothes smell, because they have been saturated with the smoke, it gets into my hair too. It also affects my health. It was found that sevenRead MoreEssay on Smoking In Public Places Should Be Banned463 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesSmoking In Public Places Should Be Banned There should be rules enforced for smoking in public places. Smokers just do not know the negative influence they are spreading. A puff of cigarette can harm a smokers health. When I go to a restaurant I do not like to leave smelling like smoke. It is the same going to a garbage dump, and smelling like garbage. I am not a smoker, and I cannot stand having the stench of smoke on my clothes. The smell of smoke is not harmful, but secondhand smoke isRead MoreSmoking Should be Banned in Public Places Essays1464 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDuring the past few decades it has come to light that smoking kills. The federal government mandates that every pack of cigarettes carry a warning on it that smoking can lead to health problems including death. But the messages are rather clinical, for example: Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, and May Complicate Pregnancy.Ã¢â¬ Smoking is a danger to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own health but there is now evidence that smoking can affect others as well. Second hand smoke has been shown to cause cancerRead MoreEssay Smoking Should NOT Be Banned in Public Places730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSmoking Should Not Be Banned in Restaurants Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the perfect situation, smoking policy would be set by bar or restaurant owners, and customers would patronize the establishments with the policy they prefer. Customers would decide-without the governments help-if they want to avoid smoke-filled rooms or enter them. They might even choose to sit in an area sectioned off for smokers or non-smokers, but the ultimate issue is choice (Ruwart 1). When the government starts telling restaurantRead MoreEssay about Smoking In Public Places Should be Banned766 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Do you mind people smoking around you in public places? According to the pro-smoking group Air Initiative 7 in 10 of you do. Do you think it is fair to discriminate against smokers, forcing them to stand outside and smoke? On the other hand is it fair that non-smokers should have to inhale second hand smoke which can dame their health? (Do you support this ban or do you oppose it?) Personally I oppose it as I believe that non-smokers shouldnÃ¢â¬ â¢t be subjected to a smoky environment on a night out.Read MoreNationwide Smoking Ban: Smoking Should be Banned in All Public Places899 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe public about its dangers in 1972 (Schick Glantz, 2005). Do people knowingly have the right to put othersÃ¢â¬â¢ health at risk? No, they do not. Exposure to cigarette smoke is a public health risk. Therefore, smoking should be banned in all public places, nationwide. There has been no attempt to impose a national smoking ban by the U.S. government. All current bans are in place because of state and local legislation. Americans for NonsmokersÃ¢â¬â¢ Rights lists the various state and local smoking lawsRead MoreEssay about Smoking Should be Banned in All Public Places1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSmoking Should be Banned in All Public Places Every year thousands of people die because of having cancer or other tobacco related illnesses due to smoking. Smoking is seen everywhere from our own television screens to even the world wide web; the internet. Tobacco is the substance that is in these cigarettes. These tobacco products are promoted through tobacco ads that are found almost everywhere you turn. They are in magazines, television screens, on the internet
Monday, May 18, 2020
Definition: Matrifocality is a concept referring to households that consist of one or more adult women and their children without the presence of fathers. Single-parent families headed by women, for example, are matrifocal since they day-to-day life of the family is organized around the mother. Examples: Single-parent families headed by women are matrifocal since they day-to-day life of the family is organized around the mother.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The Neoclassical era was known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Age of ReasonÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"The EnlightenmentÃ¢â¬ . This era started in the mid 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s. The neoclassical era was part of the Greek and Roman history. The neoclassical era started as a reaction to the former Rococo period. The Rococo art was whimsical and playful. . The artwork of the neoclassical era was morally uplifting and inspirational. The artwork depicted the seriousness of the time, order, reason, tradition, society, intellect and political events. Neoclassical artists wanted a return to traditionalism and to the perceived purity of the arts of Rome. Neoclassical artists felt this would help the people to return to knowledge and a perfect controlled time. Philosophers of the neoclassical era believed thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There are many more differences then similarities between the neoclassical and romanticism eras. The similarity is that both art eras utilized lingering elements of the baroque era. The neoclassical era gleaned from the baroque era attention to details in the different paintings. The romanticism era gleaned from the baroque era the emotional feelings that are displayed in the different paintin gs. The differences between neoclassical and romanticism began with how the painter decides to paint the picture. Neoclassical artist paint more of reality while romanticism artist paint more emotional and what they are feeling at that time. The neoclassical artist use organization, morally uplifting, inspirational, calm, rational, and solemnity in their paintings. The romanticism artist use dramatic, carefree, spontaneous, non-conformist, emotional, and imagination in their paintings. The paintings are different in many ways. The neoclassical era uses no colour, no trace of brushstrokes, and stressed drawing with lines. The romanticism era uses rich colour, visible brushstrokes, and unrestrained lines. The neoclassical era was during the mid 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s and was focused in Greek and Roman. The romanticism era was during the late 18th century to the mid 19th century and was focused in Europe and America. The neoclassical era was more about content, group settings, and logic. The ro manticism era was more about form, individual, and emotion. It is very important that theShow MoreRelatedRomanticism Visual Art922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRomanticism was an art movement that developed in the late eighteenth century and lasted for about one hundred years. Romanticism is a rejection of the traditional values of reason, order, and objectivity that characterized Classicism and Enlightenment, in particular Neoclassicism. For the romantic artist, Neoclassical principles hindered the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and creativity. Rather, the romantic artist emphasized and valued intuition, juxtaposing emotions, and imagination. Generally, Britain and GermanyRead MoreThe Evolution Of Ballet And The Human Body2010 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesexample of the human body portraying the soul is through the art of ballet. From the Cambridge Dictionary Online, ballet can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a type of dancing in which controlled movements of the body are designed to express the beauty of physical motion, often while telling a story, or a piece of music for such dancing.Ã¢â¬ With balletÃ¢â¬â¢s long history, it has shifted through various eras of time, including Ballet de Cour, Opera Ballet, Romanticism, Classical, Russian Imperialism, and the current modern eraRead More1 WatteausReturn from Cytheradepicts a For1331 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesCorrect: 1 point 14) The art of the Enlightenment features subject matter in which of the following areas? For 1 Point Your Answer: C) science and technology and moral issues Correct: 1 point 15) Joseph Wright of Derby employed ________ inÃ Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery. For 1 Point Enlarge Image Your Answer: B) tenebrism Correct: 1 point 1) The first French Revolution began in what year? For 1 Point Your Answer: C) 1789 Correct: 1 point 2) Neoclassical art favored classical andRead MoreIwc1 Literature, Arts and Humanities Essay10028 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pageseffect to cause). Question 5: Multiple Choice Why is architecture considered an art? a) Because architecture provides shelter to humans b) Because architecture is often decorated with art forms c) Because architects use perspective in their work d) Because architecture is concerned with the aesthetic effect of structures in their environment Feedback: The correct answer is d. Architecture is considered an art because it is concerned with the aesthetic effect of structures in their surrounding
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Business Ethics Ethics Issues in Ã¢â¬Å"Pirates of Silicon ValleyÃ¢â¬ The film, Ã¢â¬Å"Pirates of Silicon Valley,Ã¢â¬ is a review of the building of both Apple Computer and Microsoft as told through the lens of people that worked with both Steve Jobs at Apple and Bill Gates at Microsoft. The film addresses both the inner working of the two companies and the ethical issues that arise from their leaders, Jobs and Gates, desire to be the most important person in their chosen industry. While the film primarily focuses on Jobs and Gates, the workings of their respective companies and their rivalry play an integral role. Due to the fact that the film was produced in 1999, many issues have arisen in both companies in the years since that have changedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While Gates makes a statement to this effect in the film, the United States actually sued Microsoft for Monopoly practices two years after this film was released, and much of the system (Windows) that Gates produced was based on information obtained from Apple, thus creating t he odd dichotomy which proceeded between Microsoft and Apple in the years since this film was produced. The largest ethical issue presented in the film deals with the fact that both Apple and Microsoft used unethical behavior to gain information from other companies which the then used to further their agendas. In the case of Apple, the used information obtained from Xerox to help create their graphic interface on their LISA system, while Microsoft used information from the LISA system to help create Windows. While Jobs was decidedly anti IBM, Gates used IBM to further his software business. While both Jobs and Gates lead the computer revolution, I venture that it can be agreed that both took steps along the way which would be seen as less than ethical. As I watched this film on my Windows based laptop using my Google account, and then typed this paper Microsoft Office 2010, it became more painfully obvious that both Apple and Microsoft own large portions of our lives. Almost everyone own a product made by one if not both companies. Does this mean that the unethicalShow MoreRelatedCorporate Espionage653 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesespionage would seem obvious: one is legally getting the information you need to run your business competitively; the other is creeping around and raking through your competitors garbage; but it turns out that neither competitive intelligence nor the ethics surrounding the topic are taught much at business schools, according to academics familiar with the topic (Smith, 2012). Therefore many professionals may be crossing the line without even recognizing the fact that they are performing an action thatRead MoreMarketing and E-commerce Business65852 Words Ã |Ã 264 PagesJUST BEGINNING Opening Case: Pinterest: A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words Insight on Technology: Will Apps Make the Web Irrelevant? Insight on Business: Start-Up Boot Camp Insight on Society: Facebook and the Age of Privacy Case Study: The Pirate Bay: Searching for a Safe Haven CHAPTER 2 E-COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS AND CONCEPTS Opening Case: TwitterÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Model Insight on Society: Foursquare: Check Your Privacy at the Door Insight on Business: Crowdfunding Takes Off Insight on Technology:Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesBounded Rationality, and Intuition 175 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 177 Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 184 Individual Differences 184 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational Constraints 186 What About Ethics in Decision Making? 187 Three Ethical Decision Criteria 187 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improving Creativity in Decision Making 188 Summary and Implications for Managers 190 S A S A S A L L L Self-Assessment Library What Are My Gender Role Perceptions? 166 glOBalization
DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ views on The French Revolution Revolutions have occurred since the first oppressed people got fed up with a tyrannical leader. It has been the cry of the downtrodden since the beginning of time. Revolution is a word that symbolizes hope for a better future. We will write a custom essay sample on DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ Views on the French Revolution or any similar topic only for you Order Now It can be a dangerous thing because if not successful life for the common people might get worse than it originally was. Even if successful the new leaders can be as bad as those preceding. Dickens captures the essence of a revolution gone bad in his novel A Tale Of Two Cities. The intent of this short essay is to discuss and analyze DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment of the theme of revolution in A Tale of Two Cities. It will attempt to show you how Dickens changes his mind midway through the novel about whether or not the revolutionaries in France are better than their aristocratic predecessors. When the novel first journeyed into France, it was to a poor district in Paris by the name of St. Antonie. A barrel of wine had fallen from the back of a cart in front of a small wine shop owned by a monsieur Defarge. People from all around rushed to see what had happened. The people were so poor that the very chance to drink wine, even off the dirty street was too tempting to pass up. They drank out of cupped hands and even went as far as to squeeze wine from a rag into an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth. Their hands were stained red by the wine. It is a pitiful and prophetic scene. It is prophetic in that later these same poor peasants whose hands are stained red with wine will have them stained red with the blood of the nobility, and the streets will run with the blood of a revolution as it does with the wine. The revolution in France is necessary for the good of the people and Dickens seems to be right behind the peasants. His views are expressed most clearly when he shows how uncaring the aristocrats were to the plight of the common people. A specific point of this is when he had the Marque de Evremonde say, after running over a small child, Ã¢â¬Å"It is extraordinary that you people cannot take care of yourselves or your childrenÃ¢â¬ ¦ How do I know what injury you have done my horses. Ã¢â¬ (A Tale of Two Cities 112) Judging from how the aristocrat is portrayed, Dickens continues to support he peasants right up to the beginning of the revolution. DickenÃ¢â¬â¢s sympathies shifts rather quickly from the mob of French patriot revolutionaries to the plight of the aristocrats and their families. In the time before the revolution any noble could have any commoner thrown in jail without reason or a trial, just on a suspicion, as was done to Dr. Manette by the Evremonde brothers. This did change after the revolution, when any person at all could be thrown in jail with a good chance of execution by La Guillotine for any reason at all. The aristocrats in particular had no chance at all, as is shown by this quote, Ã¢â¬Å"Let him be, he will be judged in Paris. Ã¢â¬ The response being Ã¢â¬Å"Judged, ay! , and condemned as a traitor. Ã¢â¬ (A Tale of Two Cities 259) Dickens has no love for the mob either. While describing their wild dancing and singing and murder in the streets, he does not speak as if he holds them in high regard. In one case in particular, he seems to really despise their actions and speaks out against them through the rational voice of the narrator, Ã¢â¬Å"There were no fewer than five hundred people, and they were dancing like five thousand demons. (A Tale of Two Cities 290) In closing, I reiterate the thesis statement, that things did not improve and in some cases got worse than before. In the long run it was best for the French people as a whole but Dickens is right when he implies that the French Revolutionary mob was composed mainly of animals like Madame Defarge whose interests lay with revenge rather than the improvement as a whole of their society. While it lasted, the French Revolution was one of the most barbaric periods in the history of the world. How to cite DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ Views on the French Revolution, Essay examples
Music of the Renaissance Banquet From a musical perspective, the most important music heard at Renaissance banquets was that heard when the banquet was concluded. The brief concerts, that is to say the moment when music was actually listened to by contemplative listeners. Which were always specified as taking place after the tables were cleared, were really an important step toward todays concerts of aesthetic music.As we have discussed these small after banquet concerts in other essays, the focus of the resent essay will be to attempt to place in perspective the changing fashion of the music played while the company Is actually dining. Needless to say, the only surviving descriptions of such occasions are of the banquets of the aristocracy. Some 14th century accounts of banquet music tend to speak simply of minstrels, without identifying the actual instruments. A passage in Chaucer, for example, speaks of the music played before the king at dinner, While that this king sit thus in his ennoble, Hearkening his menstruates hair things apple Born hymn at the bored deliciously. We will write a custom essay sample on Essays on the Origins of Western Music or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A scalar reference to minstrels In general Is found In the English classic, Sir Gain and the Green Knight. We are told here that the minstrels, while the guests and all manner of meats, they made as much merriment as any men might. With mirth and minstrelsy, with metes at her willed, That madden as merry as any men mighty.Another description of banquet music In the Sir Gain tale mentions trumpets, take to mean shams. Then the first source come with cracking of trumpet, Ninth moony banner full bright that either hanged. New angry noose with the noble pipes. Nile the reader may wonder about digestion when eating in a relatively small palace room to the sound of trumpets and timpani, this passage is very similar to another account, that by a visiting French Journalist who described Macmillan I dining alone in 1492! His Majesty sits in a hall covered with tapestry, without another person except his court [Jongleurs].At every meal, mid-day or evening, there were 10 trumpeters and 10 other kinds. There were two large timpani of fine copper covered Ninth ass skins and standing in two baskets. In the middle sat a man with a thick stick Inch he let loose in beats on [the timpani] so that the tone was in unison with the other instruments, as is used in Hungary or Turkey, it was amazing and humorous to rhea early English tale of Sir Gain also has several references to banquets which included the singing of English carols. In one case, the banquet had been continuing already for 1 5 days!Sixteenth cared to the court Caroles to make. For there the fest was lechery full fifteen dates. Another occasion refers to Christmas, Nell becomes such craft upon Criticisms, Lacking of interludes, to laugh and to sang, Among these Kennedy Caroles of knights and ladies. ND yet another to dancing while singing carols, Daunted full dryly with deer Caroles. Ay the 1 5th century we begin to see accounts of banquets which place a new emphasis on variety in the music heard no more diet of trumpets! In 14th century Italy we already see this new style in Vocations reference to many and various musical sounds. The silver trays offered abundant food and the fine gold gave delicious wines to the thirsty; indeed the royal halls were soon to be seen filled with noble youths at every table; and the many and various musical sounds often caused he glittering hall to tremble. A visitor to a dinner given by Rene II of Enjoy, in 1489, reports that while the various courses were served with great ceremony with the music of trumpets, shams [fifers] and tambourines, the actual music during the dining was performed by all sorts of instruments. Tinctures, the great theorist of the Low Countries, mentions a wide rarity of instruments, now including singers, the importance of music in increasing pleasures, observing that, singers and all types of instrumentalists shams, drummers, organists, Latinists, recorder and trumpet players add to the significance of great banquets. N banquet music in more poetic terms, Around the festive board zithers, harps, and lyres set the air vibrating with delightful sounds, with soft harmony and tuneful notes.There was song, too, song of loves Joys and ecstasies, and recitals of pleasing fantasies framed in verse of happiest inspiration. A later, 1591, translation of this passage gives the instruments used as trumpets, showboat, cornets, flutes Virginals, vials and lutes. The most complete account we have for this period of the heterogeneous mixture of instruments for the music of unquiet is found among the eye-witness reports of perhaps the most famous banquet of the 1 5th century, the banquet of the Order of the Golden Fleece Joiners] hosted by Philip the Good in 1454 in Lie.Philip organized this gathering n the hope of attempting to convince the participating nobles to Join in a crusade, Constantinople having fallen to the Turks the previous year. The banquet associated Math this meeting of the Order is probably the most documented single banquet of the Renaissance. Taken together, the various eye-witnesses report the following amazing variety of music. First there were two special constructions within the dining hall (itself specially built for this banquet) which were for the purpose of music.One Nas a model church, complete with stained glass windows and a bell in the steeple. It contained four singers and an organ. Across the room was a great pastry pie Inch contained twenty-eight musicians. One can not be entirely sure of the instrumentation of the ensemble in the pie, as the eyewitnesses were somewhat confused by the resultant sound, but taking all the sources together there were mentioned bagpipes, cornets, trumpets, lutes, dalliances, flutes and drums. When all the guests were seated, a bell rang in the model church, followed by a chanson sung by the musicians inside. This was apparently the first of the musical selections performed as the food was being made ready. The chanson was followed with a performance by a musician of the bagpipe, dressed as a shepherd. Then a performing horse entered the hall, walking backward, and on its back were two trumpeters, sitting back to back and dressed in gray and black robes and wearing masks and surprising hats. The organ in the church played next, followed by a German coronet from the pie, sounding very strange. As the banquet proceeded there was continual music.One heard the singers again in a motet and a three-part chanson, La salvaged De ma vie. In through the doors of the hall came four trumpeters, in white robes playing gold trumpets, followed by more vocal music. Now a young boy (one account says a girl) seated on an artificial white stag with gilded antlers entered the hall. The boy wore a short costume of crimson silk, a little black hat and shoes of pony skin and sang Duffs chanson, Jew en visa onuses la particle, accompanied by the stag (another hidden musician). Next a play, TheMystery and Adventure of Jason, was performed on a stage, followed by more singing and organ playing from the model church. One heard a fanfare by the gold trumpets, from behind a green stage curtain, and then a four-part recorder performance from inside the pie. The dukes two blind vile players performed with young girl, followed by an instrumental work by pipe and tabor players inside the dressed in white, representing the captive Church begging for delivery by a crusade. At this time Duffs Lamentation sancta matrix ecclesiae Constitutionality was performed.The banquet lasted until 4:00 AM. The distinguishing characteristic of 16th century Renaissance music was the adoption of the consort principle. Due to technical advances in the art of wood-working it had become possible for the first time to make a true bass instrument for the various wind families. This led to instrument makers constructing families of instruments, bass through soprano, Inch they sold together in a large case and which when performed together became known as a consort. This made possible great progress in, among other things, the possibility of a group of instrumentalists playing in tune in an era with no agreed pitch standard. By the end of the century players began to mix the better sounding instruments of the various families and this is styled a mixed-consort. It was such a consort that was reported in a series of entertainments held at Fontainebleau in 1564, in honor of the visit there by Charles X. One evening we read that when the king was seated at the banquet table, as the first service was presented there began concert of cornets and a sackbut. During Elizabethan England it was apparently Shawn consort which was favored at banquets and for this reason there are several references to this practice in Shakespeare. In Timing of Athens, l, it, there is also a banquet scene, where the stage direction call for Youths playing loud music. During this banquet there is a masque featuring Cupid and Ladies of the Amazons, who play lutes and dance. After the masque, the guests dance with the Amazons to music which the stage directions identify as a lofty strain or two of the youths. In Antonym and Cleopatra the stage direction reads only Music plays while servants bringing in a banquet. It is likely Shakespeare used oboes here as well, for later in this play (V, iii) a stage direction reads Music of the youths is under the tag, referring to music of the underworld performed from the music room. In Coriolanus, V, v, as well, we suspect that the banquet scene carrying the stage direction, Music plays, refers to the oboe consort. While the oboes performed during the banquet, it was still a trumpet signal which called the guests to the table. Hush, in Othello, a stage direction reads Trumpets within and Ago remarks, Hark how these instruments summon you to supper. But, musicians, and no doubt guests as well, soon discovered that listening to one consort throughout a long banquet became tonally boring. Therefore the practice which became common was the performance of alternating consorts. This meant the noble, or the city in case of civic banquets, had to supply the 5 or 6 musicians with perhaps 100 instruments. Rush with a number of different consorts the musicians could perform each composition on different instruments for variety.When FranÃ §ois I met with Henry VIII in 1520 he obviously wanted to represent himself with the most elaborate entertainment music available to him. In their first banquet he had Henry greeted by 24 trumpets and one account of the final banquet describes music by numerous tooting consorts. During the meal, the royal musicians played in turn; trumpets, cornets, fifes [shams? ], sackbuts, trombones, surrounds, a tabor, a viol and a dutiful. The court of Albert V of Munich. Sometimes with corona-MUSM, sometimes with recorders or with flutes, or cornets and trombones in French chansons or other light compositions. For Albertan wedding banquet in 1568, we have a detailed report by Titration of the instrumental variety achieved through changing the instruments in the consort. During the first course the guests heard a 7 part motet by Lasses played by cornets ND trombones. The second course featured a 6 part madrigal by Stirring performed by 6 grosser trombones, the bass of which was reported to have sounded an octave lower than the rest. Another course was served to an ensemble of doodling, surnames, Shawn and mute coronet.Praetorian provides an illustration of how this might work in a typical banquet, but he arrives at this topic by first giving several definitions of reiteration. In the last of these, he mentions a work by Monteverdi for vices and instruments where in some places there is no text and the word reiteration appears. This, says Praetorian, means only the instruments play, and the purpose Implied is variety of tonal color. He then mentions that the term confusion is also sometimes found in such places and he finds some composers make no clear distinction between reiteration and confusion in such cases.Praetorian, however, recognizes a difference in style. A confusion is not unlike an agreeable paean or stately sonata. A reiteration, however, is like a gaillardia, accurate, Volta or cannons, full of faster note values. In any case, he describes these as relatively brief instrumental interludes and he ads that they are not unlike the intermezzi which are performed between the acts of Italian comedies, to enable the actors to change costumes and catch their breath. One can proceed in a similar manner when trying to arrange some good music for banquets of noblemen and other Joyful gatherings.Thus after one has had two or more boys sing with a harpsichord, regal or similar fundamental instrument, one immediately begins to play something else with lutes, Pandora, violins, cornets, trombones and the like, w ith instruments alone and no voices. Then one has the vices start again, thus instruments and voices alternating by turns. Similarly after a concerto or a splendid motet a gay canon, gaillardia, accurate, or the like can be presented with instruments only. This can also be done by a single organist or a Latinist.Playing at banquets he may after performing a motet or madrigal quite slowly and gravely continue with a gay allemande, antiradar, bearable, or gaillardia, to be followed again by another motet, madrigal, paean or artful fugue. Finally, we should report that there have always been some Renaissance philosophers who were not moved by all this musical brilliance and disliked everything about the banquet scene. Vocation, for example, complains in one place that, we may.. . Hear entertainers sing their dirty songs at banquets. In another place he asks, Do you think those who spend their time at great banquets and drinking are happy?Far from it. They are weak and soft from their indolence. Our attention away from the enjoyment of eating. There is, he says, a Jealousy and rivalry among our pleasures: they clash and get in each others way. He supports his argument by mentioning that Localities banished music from his table so that it should not interfere with the conversation, Justifying this with the reason which Plato scribes to him, that it is the practice of commonplace men to invite musicians and singers to their feasts since they lack that good talk and those pleasant discussions Ninth which intelligent men understand how to delight each other.But, perhaps one Just cannot expect more from a philosopher. Erasmus, in fact, suggested that perhaps it is better not to invite such a man to dinner in the first place. Ask a wise man to dinner and hell upset everyone by his gloomy silence or tiresome questions.. .. Haul him off to a public entertainment and his face will be enough to spoil the peoples enjoyment.
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Bryan Spearman July 22nd, 2010 Abstract In the case study of Classic Airline (CA), the paper use problem-solving model to solve CAÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing problem. After taking into account of the internal and external pressures contributing the CAÃ¢â¬â¢s current crisis, the new objective of implementing strategic market plan to resolve solution is clarified; furthermore, potential issues of implementation is also considered to ensure impact of the plan. The paper will also highlight that implementation of improved CRM which expected to significantly improve the profitability of the organization. Successful implementation requires effective leadership, targeting market group, realizing shared vision among stakeholders and appropriate delivery strategies. Classic Airlines Marketing Solution For every successful organization, a question is often brought forward by the management: What philosophy should guide a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing efforts? Should organization focus its strength first on the interest of stockholder, the customers or the society? Often times, these interests are in conflict with one another. Since the mid-1950s, the marketing philosophy had shift from product centered Ã¢â¬Å"make to sellÃ¢â¬ toward customer centered Ã¢â¬Å"sense and respondÃ¢â¬ philosophy. Thus the questions of marketing are finding the product that fit customerÃ¢â¬â¢s need instead of other way around. [ (Philip Kotler, 2006) ] Facing fierce global competition, companies had realized the importance of retaining healthy customer relationship because every companies knows it is far more cost effective to retain a loyal customer than to acquire a new one. According to Plunkett Research Online, the 2009-2010 periods for commercial airlines are expecting some rough ride ahead: consumer budget is tight while companies are cutting down business traveling expenses. To combat with economical hardship, airlines are fighting to cut routes, removing older models of air planes and reduce the fuel cost; at the same time, competing on best price and total service package to the customers. [ (Plunkett Research Ltd. , 2009) ] The Problems at Classic Airline The Classic Airline (CA) is worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth largest airline that operates 375 jets serves 240 cities with over 2300 daily flights. In the last 25 years, the company had grown into an organization of 32000 employees with multi-billion sales. [ (University of Phoenix, 2005) ] Due to the difficulties with increasing global competition, overexpansion within the organization, changes in customers spending, and increased concern with airline security; CA along with its competitors in the industry are dealing with issues of growing stress and reduced financial gain. Increased uncertainty had triggered a drop in stock price; thus CA has seen a 10% decrease in share price. To make the situation worse, the company had also shown 19% decrease in number of reward members and 21% decrease in flights per remaining member. (University of Phoenix, 2005) With rising cost especially in fuel and labor, CA is tight up financially in its ability to compete effectively in the market. Furthermore, the board of director mandated 15% cut in cost or the company will face bankruptcy. A key component of the business model affecting both competiveness and profitability is the structure of the marketing portfolio within the company. In fact, Classic Airlines is struggling with a number of marketing challenges both internally within their corporate culture as well as with their external marketing portfolio. Some senior executives such as newly promoted CEO Amanda Miller believed in focusing organizational resources on operational excellence and financial stability thus gives less attention to marketing. As a result, the shift in priority had caused the firm more vulnerable in this critical time which consumers needs should be valued as most important of all others. Meanwhile, CAÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors are learning fast in continuing improvement in customer satisfaction to regain their market share. Opportunity Identification Targeted at the problems at home, also lies opportunity to success. Because the executives of Classic Airline believes that they can turn the things around and improve the current situation, First opportunity is to increase customer satisfaction through the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s existing program called Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Using this information, CA can determine what it needs to focus on to bring customers back. Though the CMO, Kevin Boyle is a big supporter of this program; he might be facing disagreement with other executives down the road during the implementation process since they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much faith on how marketing department can be benefited from the program Stakeholder Groups and Shared Vision Stakeholder alignment is an important part of marketing planning thus holds a key to the success of implementation of problem solution. The potential of conflict of interest is inherent in any organization. Conflicts may exist whenever a group or an individual is paid to serve and support another from a position of assumed trust and responsibility. Ã¢â¬ [ (Emlyn Neuman-Javornik, 2006) ] Before any product reaches to consumers, it must connect with all stakeholders in every levels of the organization first because CAÃ¢â¬â¢s employees will be affected by these changes and so will their perfo rmance in the future. Can the risk due to the conflict of interest be eliminated once for all? Unfortunately, the answer is no; but the progression of actions that cause potential risky situation escalating to the point of destruction can be and should be prevented beforehand. [ (Emlyn Neuman-Javornik, 2006) ] The key step is management awareness and proactive action taken to minimize the risk factors. An effective risk-management program based on three critical phrases: Creation, Communication and Commitment. Creation is referring the solid cross-companywide statement of policy which states a clear expectation and govern ethical standard of conduct toward the all stakeholders including employee, managers, suppliers and officers; Communication, allows all levels of stakeholder to understand the statement policy and oversee any differences before it progresses; Last and most importantly, the commitment of employees, managers, partners and suppliers to invested in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy and shared vision as same as they are equally liable for the consequence if violates the policy. (Emlyn Neuman-Javornik, 2006) ] Ã¢â¬Å"The creative difference between reality and the vision is a way of seeing progress and an objective that serves as a motivator for a lot of people. Ã¢â¬ [ (Senge, 1997) ] Senge also states that the vision should come from all levels within an organization instead of being applied Ã¢â¬Å"top downÃ¢â¬ . Despite the individual belief and differences, it is vital for Cl assic Airline to establish a shared vision among all stakeholders in order for the organization continues creating value. In addition, the importance of a shared vision is the core of the company which allows teams learning to happen throughout the stages of product cycle. In fact, company that learns faster as a team than its competitor has a clear competitive advantage thus is more flexible toward changes. [ (Senge, 1997) ] In the case of Classic Airline, management had been working hard to maintain a high level of efficiency; however the passive approach has its limitation thus incapable of continuing improving when deals with worse market response. Therefore, the core competency must shift toward customer centered business operation. Employees must be encouraged to know and listen to the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s voices which allow a clear channel of communication. As a result, the info collected from bottom up will help marketing team to shape a clear picture in how to meet market demand with effective strategic solution. In addition, a cross-function communication network must be established which integrated with CRM system to close the communication gap between external and internal stakeholders. Problem Solution An Overview of Customer Relationship Management Ã¢â¬Å"CRM systems can be viewed as information systems aimed at enabling organizations to realize a customer focus. Ã¢â¬ [ (Bull, 2003) ] Though CRM has gained an increasing popularity in improving and meeting marketing demand; however, the studies had shown a great number of failure in CRM implementation. According to Giga surveys: companies generally underestimate the complexities of CRM, lack of clear business objective and tend to invest insufficient resources into the program; thus Giga survey have estimated 70% of companies are likely to fail. (Whittle, 2001) ] The truth is that CRM system is evolving over the years as market demand changes. Because the leaders oversees not only the internal running of operation but also monitor the external environments changes; and are best positioned to set the vision and strategic direction for CRM project. In addition, the top executive is more cost aware than middle management thus has stronger control over the expenditure of project over the long run. [ (Bull, 2003) ] Classic Airline had earned $8. 7 billion in sales; however, the ineffective CRM system had reduced yields from consumers and failed to maintain loyal customers. The firm suffers CRM integration problem due to unclear direction in dealing with customer relationship. Therefore, a set of priorities must be established to set straight forth the focus of the CRM system which is to identify consumer needs, assisting market segmentation, discover value and cost driver, improving customer retention and leveraging stakeholder feedback. Holistic Market Approach Classic Airline could apply the concept of holistic marketing which based on four components: relationship marketing, integrated marketing, internal marketing and social responsibility marketing. The goal is to have more comprehensive approach that goes beyond the traditional marketing strategies in order to deliver highest value to the customer. [ (Philip Kotler K. L. , 2006) ] In the relationship marketing, the company can update and strengthen the CRM program to collect data required based on the goal to understand the need, wants and demand of the customers; as the same time, integrated marketing enable multiple marketing activities to communicate thus deliver value and maximize each activitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ joint effect. As a result, two objectives that can be achieved: lower the cost of marketing and implement a solid customer service solution to increase sales. [ (Philip Kotler K. L. , 2006) ] Notably, internal marketing must be incorporated into the solution process which to ensure every stakeholders within the organization embrace and participate the marketing principle especially the senior management. Ã¢â¬Å"Holistic approaches to CRM help organization co-ordinate and effectively maintain the growth of disparate customer contact points or channels of communication. [ (Bull, 2003) ] By placing CRM system as the heart of holistic marketing approach, new solution allows company undergoing transformation needed to emphasis on customer orientated business process with higher flexibility and adaptability to market changes. Identification of Right Customer Groups According to Newell, CRM is a useful tool in terms of identifying the right customer groups; in another word, assisting with market segmenta tion in order to provide appropriate service and product to different level of market groups. (Newell, 2000) ] The basic idea of market segmentation is that a company cannot have equally profitable relationship with all customers. By targeting consumer with different product and services according to their lifestyle, individual taste and financial ability will create a win-win relationship in which both parties received maximum benefit from one another. Newell had stated that identifying customer groups is the idea of distinguishing between transaction and relationship customers; which transaction customer are highly volatile thus have less to no loyalty other than obtaining the max benefit per transaction with best price. On the contrary, the relationship customer have far more potential for loyalty as they often prepared to pay a higher price within their financial ability for a range of reliable goods and services. [ (Newell, 2000) ] Generally, relationship customer will less likely to defect once establish a relationship; however, he will expect consistent quality service as a return for his loyalty. Relationship customer is far more cost effective than new customer because they had already understood the process and requires less persuasion; as the same time, he will be able to provide useful feedback to improve quality services of the organization. Delivery of CRM System Another dimension of market problem solution is CAÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to deliver the strategy successfully. CRM strategy is only effective if they deliver positive outcome; therefore, customer focused CRM system may not be enough with current consumer demand. Not only CRM will be able to assist the organization to predict future market demand, but keep the organization strong as a market leader. The studies had shown that fundamental goal of CRM is to improve organizational profitability though efficient and effective customer relationship. If the CRM strategy is struggling to impact profitability of organization after the initial implementation period; clearly, the strategy is failed to accomplish its goal. [ (Bull, 2003) ] In the case of Classic Airline, to revise and establish a stronger and effective CRM system: the top executive must clarify the expectation and announce an overarching theme to CA employees. The top executive must assume a strong leadership role within the organization to lead the transformation of the business process and passed down to the bottom level. When employees are more anticipated, the transformation process will be easier to implement. Value is ultimately built on the improved relational variables cultivated between business unit as CA experience learning as a team. As a result, manages and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior will help improving the existing organizational culture so all stakeholders are motivated to work toward the common goal. Although the risks associated with transformation is relatively high, CA must utilize CRM system with proactive models to address the challenges/trends that market demand in a timely manner because strategy nd efficiency should always exist alongside each other. Alternative Solution and Benchmarking Ã¢â¬Å"When organizations want to improve their performance, they benchmark. That is, they compare and measure their policies, practices, philosophies, and performance measures against those of high-performing organizations anywhere in the world. Ã¢â¬ (James Cavanagh, 2000) Southwest Airline i s one of market leader in airline industry which has a reputation of delivering consistently high quality of customer service and employee performance. Southwest airline is reported that 2009 marked as their 37th year of consecutive profitability which proven their immovable leadership within the industry. (Gary C Kelly, 2009) During the period of recession, Southwest Airline had continued to dedicate quality of customer service as their top priority and led the industry with lowest customer complaint ratio. The organization is constantly seeking new opportunity to enhance customer experience. Examples of their initiatives are early bird check-in which encourage customer online-reservation; P. A. W. S that are welcoming customer with pet aboard and last, in flight internet that installing satellite-delivered broadband to onboard passenger. [ (Gary C Kelly, 2009) ] CA should learn from Southwest Airline which is developing strategic planning based on consumer focused philosophy. With new updates and perfected CRM system, CA will be able to establish more stable customer relationship in order to regain the competitive advantage in the market. Conclusion Marketing is the life and breathes of an organization, and the organization must be reminded how its strategic marketing solution should be based on consumer satisfaction consistently. Encompass the body of the paper, it is confirmed that CRM is a complex and holistic concept that requires appropriate business process and integrated systems. After identification of existing problems, alignment the stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ value and creation shared vision; Classic Airline had come to conclusion that in order for the successful implementation of updated CRM system to impact the profitability, CA need to execute effective leadership and risk management, targeting the right marketing group and evaluation within CRM strategies. The future of CA relies upon a collaborated effort infused with productivity and team work.